Significant Accounting Policies
|9 Months Ended|
Sep. 30, 2022
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Significant Accounting Policies||
Note 2 – Significant Accounting Policies
(a) Basis of Presentation
The Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements of the Company are prepared in U.S. Dollars and in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (US GAAP).
The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared by the Company. These statements include all adjustments (consisting only of normal recurring adjustments) which management believes necessary for a fair presentation of the statements and have been prepared on a consistent basis using the accounting policies described in Note 2 Significant Accounting Policies included in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021, as filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on March 31, 2022 (the “2021 Annual Report”). Certain financial information and footnote disclosures normally included in financial statements prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles have been condensed or omitted pursuant to such rules and regulations, although the Company believes that the accompanying disclosures are adequate to make the information presented not misleading. The Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in the 2021 Annual Report should be read in conjunction with the accompanying interim condensed consolidated financial statements. The interim operating results for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2022 may not be necessarily indicative of the operating results expected for the full year.
The Company effected a 1-for-2 reverse stock split immediately following the effective time of the Merger. No fractional shares were issued in connection with the Reverse Stock Split. Each stockholder who did not have a number of shares evenly divisible pursuant to the Reverse Stock Split ratio and who would otherwise be entitled to receive a fractional share of Company Common Stock was entitled to receive an additional share of Company Common Stock. The number of shares on equity related disclosures included in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, including the condensed consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes, were retroactively adjusted to reflect the effects of the Reverse Stock Split and the Exchange Ratio.
(b) Use of Estimates and Judgments
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with US GAAP requires management to make judgments, estimates and assumptions that affect the application of accounting policies and the reported amounts of assets, liabilities and expenses. Actual results may differ from these estimates. Estimates and underlying assumptions are reviewed on an ongoing basis. Revisions to accounting estimates are recognized in the period in which the estimates are revised and in any future periods affected. Information about significant areas of estimation, uncertainty and critical judgments in applying accounting policies that have the most significant effect on the amounts recognized in the financial statements is included in the following notes for recording research and development expenses, impairment of intangible assets and the valuation of share-based payments.
(c) Functional and Presentation Currency
These condensed consolidated financial statements are presented in U.S. Dollars, which is the Company’s functional currency. All financial information has been rounded to the nearest dollar. Foreign Currency Transaction Gains or Losses, resulting from cash balances denominated in Foreign Currencies, are recorded in the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss.
(d) Comprehensive Loss
The Company follows Financial Accounting Standards Board Accounting Standards Codification (“FASB ASC”) 220 in reporting comprehensive loss. Comprehensive income is a more inclusive financial reporting methodology that includes disclosure of certain financial information that historically has not been recognized in the calculation of net income. Since the Company has no items of other comprehensive income (loss), comprehensive loss is equal to net loss.
(e) Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all highly liquid investments, which include short-term bank deposits (up to three months from date of deposit) that are not restricted as to withdrawal date or use, to be cash equivalents.
(f) Fair Value of Financial Instruments
The Company’s financial instruments consist of cash and cash equivalents, marketable securities, receivables and trade and other payables. The carrying value of cash and cash equivalents, receivables and trade and other payables approximate their fair value because of their short maturities.
The framework for measuring fair value provides a fair value hierarchy that prioritizes the inputs to valuation techniques used to measure fair value. The hierarchy gives the highest priority to unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities (Level 1) and the lowest priority to unobservable inputs (Level 3). The three levels of the fair value hierarchy under FASB ASC 820 are described as follows:
The asset or liability’s fair value measurement level within the fair value hierarchy is based on the lowest level of input that is significant to the fair value measurement. Valuation techniques maximize the use of relevant observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs.
(f) Fair Value of Financial Instruments, continued
The following is a description of the valuation methodologies used for assets measured at fair value as of September 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021.
Schedule of Marketable Securities
Marketable Securities: Valued using quoted prices in active markets for identical assets.
Marketable securities are classified as available for sale and are valued at fair market value. Maturities of the securities are less than one year.
As of September 30, 2022, the Company held certain mutual funds, which, under FASB ASC 321-10, were considered equity investments. As such, the change in fair value in the three and nine months ended September 30, 2022 was a gain of $1,899 and a loss of $1,754, respectively.
Gains and losses resulting from the sales of marketable securities were losses of $1,200 and losses of $1,650 for the three months ended September 30, 2022 and 2021, respectively, and losses of $4,849 and gains of $39,797 for the nine months ended September 30, 2022 and 2021, respectively
Proceeds from the sales of marketable securities were $9,000,000 and $15,483,176 in the nine months ended September 30, 2022 and 2021, respectively. Purchases of marketable securities were $4,774,405 and $11,851 during the nine months ended September 30, 2022 and 2021, respectively.
(g) Prepaid Expenses
Prepaid expenses represent expenses paid prior to the date that the related services are rendered or used are comprised principally of prepaid insurance and research and development expenses.
Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk consist principally of cash on deposit with financial institutions and accounts receivable. At times, the Company’s cash in banks is in excess of the FDIC insurance limit. The Company has not experienced any loss as a result of these cash deposits. These cash balances are maintained with three banks as of September 30, 2022.
(i) Risk Management of Cash and Investments
It is the Company’s policy to minimize the Company’s capital resources to investment risks, prioritizing the preservation of capital over investment returns. Investments are maintained in securities, primarily publicly traded, short-term money market funds based on highly rated federal, state and corporate bonds, that minimize the risk to the Company’s capital resources and provide ready access to funds.
The Company’s investment portfolios are regularly monitored for risk and are held with one brokerage firm.
Investments recorded using the cost method will be assessed for any decrease in value that has occurred that is other than temporary and the other than temporary decrease in value shall be recognized. As and when circumstances and facts change, the Company will evaluate the Company’s ability to significantly influence operational and financial policy to establish a basis for converting the investment accounted for using the cost method to the equity method of valuation in accordance with FASB ASC 323.
In accordance with FASB ASC 323, the Company recognizes investments in joint ventures based upon the Company’s ability to significantly influence the operational or financial policies of the joint venture. An objective judgment of the level of influence is made at the time of the investment based upon several factors including, but not limited to the following:
The Company follows the equity method for valuating investments in joint ventures when the existence of significant influence over operational and financial policy has been established, as determined by management; otherwise, the Company will valuate these investments using the cost method.
The investment in Oravax Medical, Inc. (“Oravax”) (Note 3) is accounted for using the cost method.
(k) Property, Plant and Equipment
Items of property, plant and equipment are measured at cost less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses. Costs include expenditures that are directly attributable to the acquisition of the asset.
Gains and losses on disposal of an item of property, plant and equipment are determined by comparing the proceeds from disposal with the carrying amount of property, plant and equipment and are recognized within “other (income)/expense” in the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Loss.
Depreciation is recognized over the estimated useful lives of the property, plant and equipment. Leased assets are depreciated over the shorter of the lease term or their useful lives.
The estimated useful lives for the current and comparative periods are as follows:
Schedule of Estimated Useful Lives of Property Plant and Equipment
Depreciation methods, useful lives and residual values are reviewed at each reporting date.
(l) Intangible Assets
The Company’s long-lived intangible assets, other than goodwill, are assessed for impairment when events or circumstances indicate there may be an impairment. These assets were initially recorded at their estimated fair value at the time of acquisition and assets not acquired in acquisitions were recorded at historical cost. However, if their estimated fair value is less than the carrying amount, other intangible assets with indefinite lives are reduced to their estimated fair value through an impairment charge in the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Loss.
Patents and Trade Secrets
Propriety protection for the Company’s products, technology and process is important to its competitive position. As of October 31, 2022, the Company has 16 issued U.S. patents, 15 foreign patents, three pending U.S. patent applications and 16 foreign patent applications pending in such jurisdictions as Australia, Canada, China, European Union, Israel, Japan and South Korea, which if issued are expected to expire between 2036 and 2041. Management intends to protect all other intellectual property (e.g. copyrights, trademarks and trade secrets) using all legal remedies available to the Company.
The Company records expenses related to the application for and maintenance of patents as a component of research and development expenses on the Condensed Consolidated Statement of Comprehensive Loss.
Patents may be purchased from third parties. The costs of acquiring the patent are capitalized as patent costs if it represents a future economic benefit to the Company. Once a patent is acquired it is amortized over its remaining useful life and assessed for impairment when necessary.
Other Intangible Assets
Other intangible assets that are acquired by the Company, which have definite useful lives, are measured at cost less accumulated amortization and accumulated impairment losses.
Amortization is recognized on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of intangible assets, other than goodwill, from the date that they are available for use. The estimated useful lives for the current and comparative periods are as follows:
Schedule of Estimated Useful Lives of Intangible Assets
Goodwill is evaluated annually for impairment or whenever we identify certain triggering events or circumstances that would more likely than not reduce the fair value below its carrying amount. Events or circumstances that might indicate an interim evaluation is warranted include, among other things, unexpected adverse business conditions, economic factors (for example, the loss of key personnel), supply costs, unanticipated competitive activities, and acts by governments and courts.
(n) Recoverability of Long-Lived Assets
In accordance with FASB ASC 360-10-35 “Impairment or Disposal of Long-lived Assets”, long-lived assets to be held and used are analyzed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be fully recoverable or that the useful lives of those assets are no longer appropriate. The Company evaluates at each balance sheet date whether events and circumstances have occurred that indicate possible impairment.
The Company determines the existence of such impairment by measuring the expected future cash flows (undiscounted and without interest charges) and comparing such amount to the carrying amount of the assets. An impairment loss, if one exists, is then measured as the amount by which the carrying amount of the asset exceeds the discounted estimated future cash flows. Assets to be disposed of are reported at the lower of the carrying amount or fair value of such assets less costs to sell. Asset impairment charges are recorded to reduce the carrying amount of the long-lived asset that will be sold or disposed of to their estimated fair values. Charges for the asset impairment reduce the carrying amount of the long-lived assets to their estimated salvage value in connection with the decision to dispose of such assets.
(o) Right-of-Use Assets
The Company leased a facility in Tampa, Florida (“Hyde Park”) under an operating lease (“Hyde Park Lease”) with annual rentals of $22,048 to $23,320 plus certain operating expenses. The Hyde Park facility housed the MyMD Florida operations. The Hyde Park Lease took effect on July 1, 2019 for a term of 36 months to expire on June 30, 2022. The Company cancelled the Hyde Park lease in March 2022 without penalty.
The Company leased an aircraft under an operating lease (“Supera Aviation Lease”) with annual rentals of $600,000 plus certain operating expenses. The Supera Aviation Lease took effect on October 26, 2018 for a term of 36 months to expire on September 26, 2021. The Company cancelled the Supera Aviation Lease in April 2021 without penalty.
The Company leased a facility in Baltimore, Maryland (“2020 Wolfe St”) under an operating lease (“2020 Baltimore Lease”) with annual rentals of $24,000 to $25,462 plus certain operating expenses. The 2020 Baltimore Lease took effect on November 9, 2020 for a term of 12 months with automatic renewals unless a sixty-day notice was provided. The initial term expired on November 30, 2021. On November 17, 2021, the 2020 Baltimore Lease was cancelled without penalty.
The Company leases a facility in Baltimore, Maryland (“2021 Wolfe St”) under an operating lease (“2021 Baltimore Lease”) with annual rentals of $52,800 to $56,016 plus certain operating expenses. The 2021 Baltimore Lease took effect on November 17, 2021 for a term of 12 months with automatic renewals unless a sixty-day notice is provided. The initial term expires on November 30, 2022.
The Company leases a facility in Tampa, Florida (“Platt St”) under an operating lease (“Platt Street Lease”) with annual rentals of $22,030 to $23,259 plus certain operating expenses. The Platt Street Lease took effect on April 1, 2022 for a term of 36 months. The initial term expires on March 31, 2025.
On January 1, 2019 (“Effective Date”), the Company adopted FASB ASC, Topic 842, Leases (“ASC 842”), which increases transparency and comparability by recognizing a lessee’s rights and obligations resulting from leases by recording them on the balance sheet as lease assets and lease liabilities. The new guidance requires the recognition of the right-of-use (“ROU”) assets and related operating and finance lease liabilities on the balance sheet. The Company adopted the new guidance using the modified retrospective approach on January 1, 2019.
The Company elected the package of practical expedients permitted within the standard, which allows an entity to forgo reassessing (i) whether a contract contains a lease, (ii) classification of leases, and (iii) whether capitalized costs associated with a lease meet the definition of initial direct costs. Also, the Company elected the expedient allowing an entity to use hindsight to determine the lease term and impairment of ROU assets and the expedient to allow the Company to not have to separate lease and non-lease components. The Company has also elected the short-term lease accounting policy under which the Company would not recognize a lease liability or ROU asset for any lease that at the commencement date has a lease term of twelve months or less and does not include a purchase option that the Company is more than reasonably certain to exercise.
For contracts entered into on or after the Effective Date, at the inception of a contract, the Company will assess whether the contract is, or contains, a lease. The Company’s assessment is based on: (i) whether the contract involves the use of a distinct identified asset, (ii) whether the Company obtained the right to substantially all the economic benefit from the use of the asset throughout the period, and (iii) whether the Company has the right to direct the use of the asset. Leases entered into prior to January 1, 2020, which were accounted for under ASC 840, were not reassessed for classification.
For operating leases, the lease liability is initially and subsequently measured at the present value of the unpaid lease payments. The Company generally uses its incremental borrowing rate as the discount rate for leases, unless an interest rate is implicitly stated in the lease. The present value of the lease payments is calculated using the incremental borrowing rate for operating leases, which was determined using a portfolio approach based on the rate of interest that the Company would have to pay to borrow an amount equal to the lease payments on a collateralized basis over a similar term. The lease term for all the Company’s leases includes the non-cancellable period of the lease plus any additional periods covered by either a Company option to extend the lease that the Company is reasonably certain to exercise, or an option to extend the lease controlled by the lessor. All ROU assets are reviewed for impairment.
Lease expense for operating leases consists of the lease payments plus any initial direct costs and is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term.
The Company’s operating leases are comprised of the Hyde Park Lease, the 2021 Baltimore Lease and the Platt Street Lease on the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet. The information related to these leases are presented below:
Schedule of Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet Information Related to Operating Lease
The following provides details of the Company’s lease expense:
Schedule of Lease Expense
Other information related to leases is presented below:
Schedule of Other Information Related to Leases
As of September 30, 2022, the annual minimum lease payments of the Company’s operating lease liabilities were as follows:
Schedule of Operating Lease Minimum Lease Payments
(p) Revenue Recognition
The Company will recognize revenue under ASC 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers. The core principle of the revenue standard is that a company should recognize revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the company expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. The Company only applies the five-step model to contracts when it is probable that the Company will collect the consideration it is entitled to in exchange for the goods and services transferred to the customer. The following five steps are applied to achieve that core principle:
(q) Income Taxes
The Company utilizes an asset and liability approach for financial accounting and reporting for income taxes. The provision for income taxes is based upon income or loss after adjustment for those permanent items that are not considered in the determination of taxable income. Deferred income taxes represent the tax effects of differences between the financial reporting and tax basis of the Company’s assets and liabilities at the enacted tax rates in effect for the years in which the differences are expected to reverse.
The Company evaluates the recoverability of deferred tax assets and establishes a valuation allowance when it is more likely than not that some portion or all the deferred tax assets will not be realized. Management makes judgments as to the interpretation of the tax laws that might be challenged upon an audit and cause changes to previous estimates of tax liability. In management’s opinion, adequate provisions for income taxes have been made. If actual taxable income by tax jurisdiction varies from estimates, additional allowances or reversals of reserves may be necessary.
Tax benefits are recognized only for tax positions that are more likely than not to be sustained upon examination by tax authorities. The amount recognized is measured as the largest amount of benefit that is greater than 50 percent likely to be realized upon settlement. A liability for “unrecognized tax benefits” is recorded for any tax benefits claimed in the Company’s tax returns that do not meet these recognition and measurement standards. As of September 30, 2022, and December 31, 2021, no liability for unrecognized tax benefits was required to be reported.
There is no income tax benefit for the losses for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2022 and 2021 since management has determined that the realization of the net deferred assets is not assured and has created a valuation allowance for the entire amount of such tax benefits.
The Company’s policy for recording interest and penalties associated with tax audits is to record such items as a component of general and administrative expense. There were no amounts accrued for penalties and interest for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2022 and 2021. The Company does not expect its uncertain tax position to change during the next twelve months. Management is currently unaware of any issues under review that could result in significant payments, accruals or material deviations from its position.
Basic earnings per common share is based on the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the periods presented. Diluted earnings per share is computed using the weighted average number of common shares plus dilutive common share equivalents outstanding during the period. Potential common shares that would have the effect of increasing diluted earnings per share are considered anti-dilutive.
Diluted net loss per share is computed using the weighted average number of shares of common and dilutive potential common stock outstanding during the period.
As the Company reported a net loss for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2022 and 2021, common stock equivalents were anti-dilutive.
Schedule of Anti-dilutive Securities Excluded from Computation of Earnings Per Share
The Company accounts for stock-based compensation under the provisions of Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) 718, “Compensation - Stock Compensation”, which requires the measurement and recognition of compensation expense for all stock-based awards made to employees and directors based on estimated fair values on the grant date. The Company estimates the fair value of stock-based awards on the date of grant using the Black-Scholes model. The value of the portion of the award that is ultimately expected to vest is recognized as expense over the requisite service periods using the straight-line method. In June 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-07, Compensation – Stock Compensation (Topic 718), Improvements to Nonemployee Share-Based Payment Accounting (the “2018 Update”). The amendments in the 2018 Update expand the scope of Topic 718 to include share-based payment transactions for acquiring goods and services from nonemployees. Prior to the 2018 Update, Topic 718 applied only to share-based transactions to employees. Consistent with the accounting requirement for employee share-based payment awards, nonemployee share-based payment awards within the scope of Topic 718 are measured at grant-date fair value of the equity instruments that an entity is obligated to issue when the good has been delivered or the service has been rendered and any other conditions necessary to earn the right to benefit from the instruments have been satisfied.
The Company has elected to account for forfeiture of stock-based awards as they occur.
Certain prior year amounts have been reclassified to conform to the current year’s presentation.
(u) Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements
Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements Adopted
In May 2021, the FASB issued ASU 2021-04, Earnings Per Share (Topic 260), Debt - Modifications and Extinguishments (Subtopic 470-50), Compensation - Stock Compensation (Topic 718), and Derivatives and Hedging - Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40), Issuer’s Accounting for Certain Modifications or Exchanges or Freestanding Equity - Classified Written Call Options. The amendments in this Update clarify an issuer’s accounting for modifications or exchanges of freestanding equity - classified written call options (for example, warrants) that remain equity classified after modification or exchange. The amendments are effective for all entities for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2021, including interim periods within those fiscal years. An entity should apply the amendments prospectively to modifications or exchanges occurring on or after the effective date of the amendments. Early adoption is permitted for all entities, including adoption in an interim period. If an entity elects to early adopt the amendments in this Update in an interim period, the guidance should be applied as of the beginning of the fiscal year that includes the interim period. The adoption of this ASU had no material impact on the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements and related disclosure.
Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements Not Adopted
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326), Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments (“ASU-2016-13”). ASU 2016-13 affects loans, debt securities, trade receivables, and any other financial assets that have the contractual right to receive cash. The ASU requires an entity to recognize expected credit losses rather than incurred losses for financial assets. ASU 2016-13 is effective for the fiscal year beginning after December 15, 2022, including interim periods within that fiscal year. The Company expects that there would be no material impact on the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements upon the adoption of this ASU.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/disclosureRef